Strategy for Invasion and Conquest: Biblical Principles for Christian Political Action in the New Millenium

by Joseph Morecraft, III


Editor’s Note: This article is the text of an address given by Rev. Morecraft at the National Reform Association conference in Lynchburg, Virginia on October 9, 1999

Understanding the difference between the First and Second Commandments is essential to effective Christian political action. The First Commandment orders us to worship and serve God alone. The Second Commandment orders us to worship and serve God alone in God’s revealed way alone. So then, in Christian political action, we must make sure our goals are God’s goals as revealed in the Bible, and our strategies are God’s strategies as revealed in the Bible. Why will such action be effective? Because the Lord honors those who honor Him!

We must not make the mistake of contemporary political conservatism and think that the religious, cultural wars of today are confined to politics, that the basic crises of our day are political, and that the final solutions are political. They are raging on all fronts: church, state, education, art, economics, jurisprudence, medicine, the media, the home and family. An added problem we must face is that the majority of today’s Bible-believing Christians agree that political involvement and political solutions are central to social reform.

Christians must take the battle into the political arena, to be sure, but we must also take the battle into all other cultural arenas in the name of Christ the King. Many ostensibly Bible-believing Christians resent this biblical emphasis that they are responsible to stand for the crown rights of Christ the King in politics as well as in all other social and cultural crises outside the local church. This is why the critics of a Reformed worldview and a Christian Reconstruction approach to social reform erroneously argue over and over that the hidden agenda of all our efforts is the take-over of the civil government by a small band of Christians who will try to impose their agenda upon the nation by the power of the sword.

Nothing could be farther from the truth. As Gary North has written: ”[I]t is the theology of Christian Reconstructionism that alone in our day offers a self-consciously biblical rejection of humanism’s statist social theory. Christian Reconstructionists categorically deny that politics is central to social change. The reformation of the Church is central; every other positive social change will flow from this one.”1 Why is this so? The book of Judges and the Old Testament prophets tell us time and again that the spiritual and moral condition of the church will determine the social, political, and economic condition of the nation in which that church exists!

So then, let us turn to those biblical principles that must inform our Christian political action.

First, tyranny, the perversion of justice, and the loss of liberty are results of the curse of God upon an apostate church and nation.

Therefore, our resistance of tyranny and our efforts to restore liberty and justice for all must begin with repentance, “humble submission to His will, a reverential fear of His judgments, and a full recognition of the righteousness of His moral government.”2 Before a nation can be reconstructed the church must be reformed and renewed. This means that we must begin where the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland began in the 17th century with its publication, Causes of the Lord’s Wrath Against Scotland, which was a public confession of sin and public call to repentance and to the renewal of that nation’s covenantal responsibilities.

Those national sins that were the causes of God’s displeasure which the Church of Scotland confessed included the following:

1. The gross atheism and ignorance of God, and of His word and works, that is in a great part of the inhabitants of the land, which is such that neither law nor gospel, nor the most common and necessary points of truth are understood or known by many thousands. 2. Horrible looseness and profanity of conversation in all sorts, against the commandments both of the first and second table, which hath so abounded and increased that scarce hath any of the nations exceeded us therein. 3. The despising and slighting of Jesus Christ offered in the gospel (which we look on as the chief and mother sin of this nation), and the not valuing and improving the gospel and precious ordinances of Christ, unto the establishing and building up of ourselves in the lively faith of Christ and power of godliness, but either neglecting and despising these things altogether, or else resting upon and idolizing outward and bare forms, without studying to know in ourselves, or to promote in others, the kingdom of God, which is righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost; whereby it hath come to pass that persons not rightly qualified have been admitted unto, and continued in, the work of the ministry and elderships, and that public repentance and kirk censures have been grossly slighted, and the sacrament of the Lord’s supper fearfully polluted by the promiscuous admitting of many ignorant and scandalous persons thereto; and many wilfully ignorant, and openly and continuedly profane, have been kept in the fellowship of this kirk, contrary to the word of God…. 4. The base love of the world, and covetousness, which hath made not only the body of the people, but many ministers more to mind their own things than the things of Jesus Christ, and many masters, rulers, magistrates, officers and soldiers in armies, exceedingly to abuse their power unto the exercising of intolerable oppression of all kinds on the poor, to the grinding of their faces, and making their lives bitter to them; which fountain of covetousness did also produce…the fearful perjuries in the land in the matter of valuation and excise. 5. Deep security, impenitency, obstinacy and incorrigibleness… under all the dreadful strokes of God, and tokens of his indignation against us, because of the same; so that while he continues to smite, we are so far from humbling ourselves and turning to him, that we wax worse and worse, and sin more and more. 6. Although we are not ignorant that mockers of all sorts may take occasion by this acknowledgment of the sins of ministers to strengthen themselves in their prejudices at our persons and callings, and turn this unto our reproach, and that some may misconstrue our meaning therein, as if we did thereby intend to render the ministry of this church base and contemptible, which is far from our thoughts, we knowing and being persuaded in ourselves that there are many able, godly and faithful ministers in the land; yet, being convinced that we are called to humble ourselves, and to justify the Lord in all the contempt that he hath poured upon us-that they who shall know our sins may not stumble at our judgments-we have thought it our duty to publish this following discovery and acknowledgment of the corruptions and sins of ministers, that it may appear how deep our hand is in the transgression, and that the ministers of Scotland have no small accession to the drawing on of these judgments that are upon the land.3

When was the last time you heard of a national group of Reformed, Evangelical, or Fundamentalist preachers publicly and in detail confess their sins as ministers and acknowledge that their unfaithfulness in life and in the pulpit has been a major contribution to the bringing down of God’s judgment on our nation? This is where we must begin in our Christian political action.

We are hypocrites if we work to focus on the sins of others-the humanists, socialists, and their ilk-and forget about our own sins and our need for self-examination, repentance, and rededication to Christ. Christian political activists must take the position of the publican before we begin our criticism of the Pharisee; judgment must begin with the house of the Lord! As Louis DeBoer has written:

Now it is the patent stock in trade of “Christian Conservatism” perpetually ad nauseam to call everyone else to repentance. It is always the liberals, the socialists, the communists, the atheists who are called to repentance. It is the sin of the pornographers, of the National Council of Churches, of radical politicians, that are constantly kept in view. By comparison, the membership of such groups are constantly preening themselves as a righteous elite standing for “God and country.” One prominent anti-communist evangelist actually pleaded with his following to ignore his homosexuality so that they could get on with the main task of saving the nation from communism.4

Second, effective Christian political action must have a solidly biblical theological foundation.

It must grow out of a thoroughly and consistently biblical worldview. It must not try to be religiously, morally, or theologically neutral, even if it could. It must not bring its theological principles down to the lowest common denominator to satisfy all its participants which come from every denomination and sect in Christendom. It must stand unequivocally and totally upon the Word of God in the development of all its goals and strategies if it is to be blessed by God with success. Only houses built upon the rock withstand the storms that rage against them.

This is the cause of the failure of political conservatism in the last quarter of the 20th century. It was built on sand. It sought to bring about political and social change without Christ or the Bible, and as a result its ever-evolving folly became evident to everybody as it crumbled to the ground. Modern conservatism’s efforts to build political, economic, and social structures without an adequate theological foundation wound up creating only “castles in the sky, ethereal houses of cards without any solid underpinnings.”5 Such conservatism was thoroughly diagnosed and soundly rebuked by the great Robert L. Dabney in the last years of the 19th century:

This is a party which never conserves anything. Its history has been that it demurs to each aggression of the progressive party and aims to save its credit by a respectable amount of growling but always acquiesces at last in the innovation. What was the resisted novelty of yesterday is today one of the accepted principles of conservatism; it is now conservative only in affecting to resist the next innovation, which will tomorrow be forced upon its timidity and will be succeeded by some third revolution, to be denounced and then adopted in its turn. American conservatism is merely the shadow that follows Radicalism as it moves forward towards perdition. It remains behind it, but never retards it, and always advances near its leader. This pretended salt hath utterly lost its savor: wherewith shall it be salted? Its impotency is not hard, indeed, to explain. It is worthless because it is the conservatism of expediency only, and not of sturdy principle. It intends to risk nothing serious for the sake of the truth, and has no idea of being guilty of the folly of martyrdom. It always -when about to enter a protest-very blandly informs the wild beast whose path it essays to stop, that its “bark is worse than its bite,” and that it only means to save its manners by enacting its decent role of resistance. The only practical purpose which it now subserves in American politics is to give enough exercise to Radicalism to keep it “in wind,” and to prevent its becoming pursy and lazy from having nothing to whip. No doubt, after a few years, when women’s suffrage shall have become an accomplished fact, conservatism will tacitly admit it into its creed, and thenceforward plume itself upon its wise firmness in opposing with similar weapons the extreme of baby suffrage; and when that too shall have been won, it will be heard declaring that the integrity of the American Constitution requires at least the refusal of suffrage to asses. There it will assume, with great dignity, its final position.6

However, not only are solid theological underpinnings essential to political action worthy of the name of Christ, but also an absolute necessity exists for a national consensus of theological and ethical opinion, if our biblical political agenda is to be reached. Without that consensus, it would be folly to try to force a reconstructionist agenda upon the nation. It would not only be folly, it would be completely unbiblical.

Therefore, the primary work of Christian political activism is the re-creation of a Christian consensus in the American populace, the capturing of the hearts and minds of our people with the comprehensive Word of God. Essential to gaining ground politically is our whole-hearted and persistent work in evangelism, discipleship, and education—in saving the lost and in Christianizing Christians, without which all our political efforts will be futile.

Third, God rules over all.7

The triune God is the most high King of the universe, who rules and controls everything in His universe as He pleases for His glory. To Him all individuals and institutions in human society are accountable. The whole universe is His theocracy. This very moment the Lord God omnipotent reigns. Nothing in the entire universe lies outside His jurisdiction. God rules the energies of creation, the course of history, the hearts, minds and lives of human beings, and all the nations of the earth. “God rules everything and everyone, everywhere and at all times. For, ‘the Lord has established His throne in the heavens, and His sovereignty rules over all’ (Psalm 103:19). “8

This has important implications for Christian political action as George Grant has taught us:

The goal of Christian political action then is not to usher in a theocracy but to acknowledge the theocracy that already exists (Proverbs 3:6). Christian political action is not supposed to impose a messianic kingdom from the top down. Only God can lawfully control the hearts of men by imposing His rule. Christian political action is merely a public expression of our fealty to Him and our submission to His Law—a Law that brings blessings for obedience and cursings for disobedience. Christian political action is an expression in one area of our lives of our humility before God.9

Fourth, God has ordained civil government

(Rom. 13:1). Just as the family and the church are God’s ordained institutions, so the civil government is God’s institution, under His jurisdiction, and accountable to His supremacy expressed in His law. He has not only defined the function of civil government, He has also defined its limitations.

Thus, like the family and the church, the state is to be considered sacred: ruled by God, ordered by His Word, and entrusted to men as a divine arena for the proving of righteousness. And like the family and the church, the state is to be considered by faithful Christians to be a legitimate, and indeed, an essential area of calling and ministry. It is as honorable and holy a pursuit as is fatherhood or evangelism or the pastorate.10

Fifth, salvation by law is a deadly heresy.

Attempted obedience to God’s law cannot make a bad man good, nor can the passing of legislation make people good. This heresy comes in different forms, all of which are fraudulent: salvation by legislation, salvation by education, salvation by works. God’s enemies have always sought other ways of salvation other than by grace alone, because “they cannot stand the thought of being at the mercy of God.”11

We are saved by the unmerited grace of God through faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law. But God saves us through Christ “in order that the requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk, not by the flesh, but by the Spirit” (Rom. 8: 1-4). In other words, the law of God is something we obey because God has saved us, not in order to be saved by Him. “Obedience to the law is the effect of salvation, not the cause of salvation.”12

Biblical law is designed to serve several functions in the life of mankind. It reveals the absolute moral standards of God’s rule over us (Ps. 119:9-12; Deut. 28:2-7, 15-19). It convicts us of sin and leads us to Christ alone for salvation (Gal. 3:24; Rom. 7:7-16). It is God’s testimony to the world’s nations, calling them to repentance of sin (Deut. 4:5-8; Isa. 42:6-7; Deut. 26:18-19). It is “a blueprint for living” for human beings as individuals and in all their institutions and nations (2 Tim. 3:16-17; 2 Pet. 1:3-4; Josh. 1:7-8).

Truly, Christian activists do not believe in salvation by legislation or politics. They do not put their trust in legal, judicial, or political messianic figures. For them only one Messiah exists, and “there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved” (Acts 4: 12). They do not attempt to control people by force. They know that belief in salvation by laws results inevitably in political tyranny. Instead, in all their actions and involvement, Christian activists are submitting to the rule of the God of grace, their Savior and Lord in Jesus Christ, and working hard to reveal the grace of God in the faithful use of God’s law: as that one absolute moral standard by which civil magistrates must distinguish lawless behavior from lawful behavior; as the expression of the rule of mankind’s one and only Savior; as a true and workable alternative political and legal system in contrast to the failed socialistic and libertarian systems of fallen man; and as God’s perfect blueprint for living and governing.

Sixth, as Christians, God calls us to “guard the land.”

Despite their evil, God would have spared Sodom and Gomorrah from destruction if only ten men could be found “guarding the city with their righteousness.”13 The moral of the story is this: “if the righteous will guard the cities, they are safe. But, if there are no guardians, disaster is inevitable.”14

God has called His people in Christ to be a kingdom of priests (1 Pet. 2:5). “The word ‘priest’ literally means ‘guardian.’ Thus a priest is someone who guards. He protects. He preserves. He stays the hand of destruction and defilement.”15 Jesus said that we are to be the salt of the earth (Matt. 5: 13), who are to “guard the nations with their covenantal loyalty, discretion, purity, and perpetuity. [We are] to be the medicine of hope…a preserving agent, restraining sin…. The survival of any nation depends entirely on the fulfillment of the disciple’s priestly duties. If the people of God fail to be salt, then the nation cannot be preserved from putrefaction, and it will fall into judgment.”16

Seventh, God has called us as Christians to “reclaim the land.”

Central to all the promises of God’s covenant is the promise that God’s people will inherit the earth, just as Abraham was the heir of the world. Land and faith are interrelated in the Bible in at least three ways: 1) the land provides us with a place to worship God, i.e., a sanctuary; 2) it gives us a place to rest, i.e., a home; and 3) it gives us a place to work, i.e., dominion. As Adam found in his experience, whenever human beings rebel against God they first lose their sanctuary, then they lose their home, and finally, if sin is left unchecked, they lose dominion, for they lose the whole world.

Therefore, Christian political activism involves the hard work of reclaiming the earth for the people of God, and for the glory of our great God. The earth is the Lord’s, (Ps. 24:1). He has given it to His people by covenant, and He has instructed us to exercise stewardship and godly dominion over it.

He gives us land. And we are able to express His dominion by ordering and subduing that land. He gives us an inheritance. And we are to affirm His rule by forging out of that inheritance a harmonious world, a secure home, and a holy sanctuary….

This is the crux of Christian political action. This is the task that confronts us: salvation and godly rule. We are to be more than just salt: preserving. We are to be light: reclaiming, Matthew 5:13-16….

[We are frequently told that]...the ethical fortitude of Christians is necessary to enhance the moral tenor of our nation. We need, or so the notion goes, Christian input in order to keep our governmental and judicial system on an even keel.

Unfortunately, such thinking is entirely unbiblical. In fact, such thinking is rooted in the very pragmatism that dooms nations to the downward spiral of digression.

We Christians should never become involved in political action if this is our aim. If our sights are set simply on enhancing or influencing or aggrandizing the present world system, then we should forget about it altogether. If our motivation stems only from some hazy notion of citizenship or patriotism or single-interest, then the whole matter should be dropped. If the preservation of heathen pluralism…is our grand and glorious desire, then we’d best retreat once again behind the fortress security of the evangelical ghetto whence we came. Political action, for such reasons, is entirely illegitimate….

Christians have an obligation, a mandate, a commission, a holy responsibility to reclaim the land [of all the states in the United States] for Jesus Christ—to have dominion in the civil structures, just as in every other aspect of life and godliness.

But it is dominion that we are after. Not just a voice.

It is dominion we are after. Not just influence.

It is dominion we are after. Not just equal time.

It is dominion we are after.

World conquest. That’s what Christ has commissioned us to accomplish. We must win the world with the power of the Gospel. And we must never settle for anything less….

Thus Christian politics has as its primary intent the conquest of the land—of men, families, institutions, bureaucracies, courts, and governments for the Kingdom of Christ. It is to reinstitute the authority of God’s Word as supreme over all judgments, over all legislation, over all declarations, constitutions, and confederations.17

Eighth, we must return to the standard of excellence for those in public office.

God told Israel through Moses to select for their leaders “able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness” (Ex. 18:21-22). Those men who were to exercise “the ministry of political action” (Ex. 18:21), were “to adhere to certain standards before they could be considered for this ministry. Their character had to be tested. They had to be screened by the Law [of God]. To govern in terms of the covenant, first they had to be governed in terms of the covenant….”18 They had to be men who feared God, men of honesty and integrity, above moral reproach, hating covetousness, content with God’s providence and God’s will. And they had to be men who demonstrated wisdom, discernment, understanding, and practical skill. Their characters had to be excellent-godly-Christ-like, and nothing less.

Christian political activists must not be careless and haphazard in any of their efforts as salt and light. ”...if we pursue dominion in the same sloppy, shoddy way we’ve done everything else, we’d best forget about it altogether…. We must raise up leaders who know what to do and how to do it well…. The task of caring for the civil sphere is certainly too important to leave in the hands of the godless, lecherous and the greedy [like Bill Clinton]. But it is also too important to leave in the hands of the sloppy and careless.”19

Ninth, in all our political action we must be honorable and ethical in our opposition.

In David, we see an honorable man opposing an evil King Saul (1 Sam. 24:2-8). David was alert, steadfast, brave, strong, and loving, and this must be our pattern for honorable opposition. Our constant prayer should be: “O my God, I trust in You. Let me not be ashamed. Let not my enemies triumph over me. Indeed let no one who waits on the Lord be ashamed” (Ps. 25:2-3).

We must oppose the enemies of the kingdom, but we must oppose them honorably. We must learn to fight fair [whether they do or not]. Like David, we must develop a pattern of righteous resistance.

We must be alert. It is essential that we be aware and informed.

We must be steadfast. Our convictions must be unmovable and unshakable.

We must be brave. Fear and trembling before men have no place in our agenda.

We must be strong. God has endowed us with His might. Now we must use it.

And we must be loving. A deep respect for authority, office, and influence must mark our every thought, word and deed.

In short, ethical standards we carry into the political sphere must go well beyond mere honesty and sincerity. It is not enough to know that God desires for us to be salt and light, reclaiming the land through uncompromising conviction and undeterred excellence. We must oppose the forces of darkness with patience and honor.20

Tenth, we must not compromise, but “our steadfastness must be marked by humility.”21

Daniel could have compromised, but he knew that unswerving obedience to God’s Word is the road to dominion; and so Daniel refused to play the dirty political game of compromise and accommodation (Dan. 6:4-10). He knew he had been called to political action by Almighty God Himself (Dan. 1:4, 17-20), therefore, his first allegiance was to Him, (Dan. 6:10-11). “He would not, and he could not, compromise that commitment. God’s will, God’s law, God’s purpose, and God’s agenda for men and nations were non-negotiable for him.”22

Uncompromising stands in the political arena can be costly. Daniel could have kept his political office, his influence and prominence, if he had made one simple compromise, but he refused, and he was thrown to the lions. Why did he refuse? George Grant gives us three reasons:23

1. Daniel knew Who really governs men and nations, and he was loyal to that Sovereign Lord. 2. Daniel understood the nature of his opposition. “He knew that his enemies would not be satisfied with anything less than the assassination of his faith and the obliteration of his privilege. Compromise would have been fruitless. It would not have accomplished anything more than a watering down of his message.” 3. Daniel knew that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose (Rom. 8:28).

This present evil age will see our uncompromising stand for Christ in the political arena as arrogance, self-confidence, and pompous egotism. They thought that of Daniel (Dan. 6:13), and Joseph (Gen. 37:8). In fact, “virtually all of God’s heroes through time have been accused of having a self-indulgent, self-inflating, and self-assuming attitude…. Uncompromising steadfastness is almost always confused with unreasoning pontification. Righteousness is thus labeled ‘intolerance,’ and righteous men and women are popularly diagnosed as ‘suffering from delusions of grandeur.’ But nothing could be farther from the truth.”24 And so in all our political action, we must be humble. We’ll win only if we are humble. As the Word of God says: “Before destruction the heart of a man is haughty and before honor is humility” (Prov. 18:12). “By humility and the fear of the Lord are riches and honor and life” (Prov. 22:4). “The fear of the Lord is the instruction of wisdom, and before honor is humility” (Prov. 15:33).

Eleventh, in all our political action we must earnestly pray.

Prayer must be a central plank in any strategy of Christian political activism. Christ called us to change the world, to make the world’s nations His disciples, and our starting point for that great work is prayer. Nehemiah, for example, proved that world-changing action must be preceded by world-changing prayer (Neh. 1:4-11). “Praying wasn’t all that he did. But it was the foundation of all that he did…Nehemiah knew that it is pointless to attempt anything apart from God’s blessing and purpose: ‘Unless the Lord builds the house, they labor in vain who build it; unless the Lord guards the city the watchman stays awake in vain. It is vain for you to rise up early, to sit up late, to eat the bread of sorrows; for so He gives His beloved sleep’ (Ps. 127:1-2). 25”

He [Nehemiah] didn’t want God to simply “okay” his plans. He wanted to do what God wanted him to do. Prayer held him accountable to that. It gave him the resolve to stick to that. Prayer gave him access to God’s will, God’s way, God’s purposes, and God’s plan [and God’s power].26

Twelfth, in distinctively Christian political action, “we can face the odds…and win.”27

God has promised us victory in His Word. In spite of all opposition, God’s faithful people are invincible, dressed in the Christian’s armor (Eph. 6:10-18). Since God is for us in Christ, it does not matter who rises up against us, they will fail in their efforts to destroy us (Rom. 8:37-39). Even the gates of hell cannot withstand our withering assaults against them to set the prisoners free (Matt. 16:8). Christ is reigning, and will continue to reign until He has through His church overthrown all opposition against Him, and then He will arise from God’s right hand and come back for the mother of all victory celebrations (1 Cor. 15:24ff).

A Christian political activist can be and must be confident that the basis for victory over all anti-Christian opposition was laid in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. He must believe that at this very moment Christ the cosmic King is directing all our efforts and mistakes gradually to extend that victory over all the earth; and that at the end, He will come to us personally and say to the faithful: “Well done, good and faithful servant…enter into the joy of your Master” (Matt. 25:21).

Our goal is victory because our hope (confident assurance) for the future is victory, because God is faithful. Without a solidly-based victory- orientation toward the future of Christian political action, we will be easily intimidated off the battlefield.28 If we believe in defeat, we will not be disappointed.

God has spoken: “Do not grow weary in well-doing, for in due time we shall reap, if we do not faint” (Gal. 6:9). That is God’s promise to us. Dare we believe it? Dare we not believe it?

If you are doubtful about the certain success of Christian endeavor in conquering the world for Christ, weigh carefully these words by 19th century Confederate Presbyterian, James Henley Thornwell:

If the Church could be aroused to a deeper sense of the glory that awaits her, she would enter with a warmer spirit into the struggles that are before her. Hope would inspire ardour. She would even now arise from the dust, and like the eagle plume her pinions for loftier flights than she has yet taken. What she wants, and what every individual Christian wants, is faith-faith in her sublime vocation, in her Divine resources, in the presence and efficacy of the Spirit that dwells in her-faith in the truth, faith in Jesus, and faith in God. With such a faith there would be no need to speculate about the future. That would speedily reveal itself. It is our unfaithfulness, our negligence and unbelief, our low and carnal aims, that retard the chariot of the Redeemer. The Bridegroom cannot come until the Bride has made herself ready. Let the Church be in earnest after greater holiness in her own members, and in faith and love undertake the conquest of the world, and she will soon settle the question whether her resources are competent to change the face of the earth.29

Joseph Morecraft is the pastor of Chalcedon Presbyterian Church in Atlanta, author of With Liberty and Justice for All, publisher of Counsel of Chalcedon, founder of a Christian school, sought after speaker, and Christian activist.


1. Gary North, “Editor’s Introduction,” in Tactics of Christian Resistance, ed. Gary North (Tyler, TX: Geneva Divinity School Press, 1983), xxi.

2. Louis DeBoer, The Fundamental Biblical Tactic for Resisting Tyranny in Tactics of Christian Resistance, 14.

3. Ibid., 27-29.

4. Ibid., 25.

5. Ibid., 16.

6. Robert L. Dabney, Discussions, vol. 4 (Vallecito, CA: Ross House Publishers, [1897] 1979), 496; as cited by Deboer, The Fundamental Biblical Tactic for Resisting Tyranny, 16.

7. This basic principle and the ones following are from George Grant’s book, The Changing of the Guard: Biblical Blueprints for Political Action (Ft. Worth, TX: Dominion Press, 1987).

8. Ibid., 11. 9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., 20. 11. Ibid., 27.

12. Ibid. 13. Ibid., 36.

14. Ibid., 37. 15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., 39. 17. Ibid., 49-51.

18. Ibid., 53-54.

19. Ibid., 62-63.

20. Ibid., 76.

21. Ibid., 87.

22. Ibid., 79.

23. Ibid. 80-82.

24. Ibid., 83.

25. Ibid. 94.

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid., 107.

28. See my paper Victory in Jesus: The victory Orientation of a Christian Futureview, available from Chalcedon Presbyterian Church, (770) 752-8630.

29. James H. Thornwell, Collected Writings, vol. 2, p. 48 (1871), as cited by J. Marcellus Kik in An Eschatology of Victory (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1971), 6.

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